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                :: Shapal?Hi-M Analysis ::

                Comparison of Shapal™-M soft with Shapal™ Hi-M soft and traditional ceramics

                This information is provided to help existing users of Shapal™-M soft compare it with the new Shapal™ Hi-M soft material and also to help users of traditional ceramics evaluate this machineable ceramic for their application.

                Comparison of flexural strengths and thermal conductivities (Typical Data)

                Data Supplied by Tokuyama Corporation, Tokyo, Japan

                Impurities

                Element Shapal™-M soft Shapal™ Hi-M soft
                 C  300ppm 300ppm
                Ca 450ppm 1300ppm
                Cr 60ppm 1ppm
                Mg 15ppm 1ppm
                Ni <5ppm 2ppm
                Fe 20ppm 8ppm
                Si <15ppm 40ppm
                O 0.5% 0.9%
                Ti <1 <20
                Property/Test Conditions Shapal™-M soft Shapal™ Hi-M soft Units
                GENERAL      
                Density Corrected to 4°C 2.88 2.88 g/cm³
                Porosity 25°C 0 0 %
                ELECTRICAL      
                Volume Resistivity 25°C, DC 1.4 x 1012 1.0 x 1015 Ωcm 
                Dissipation Factor (tan δ) 25°C, 1MHz 9.1 x 10-4 10 x 10-4  
                Dielectric Constant (ε) 25°C, 1MHz 6.9 6.8  
                Dielectric Strength
                56 65 kV/mm
                THERMAL      
                Thermal Expansion Coefficient RT~400°C 4.4 x 10-6 4.8 x 10-6 /°C
                Thermal Expansion Coefficient RT~600°C 4.8 x 10-6 4.9 x 10-6 /°C
                Thermal Expansion Coefficient RT~800°C 5.1 x 10-6 5.0 x 10-6 /°C
                Thermal Conductivity 25°C 96 92 W/mK
                Maximum Use Temp. (in air) 1,000 1,000 °C
                Maximum Use Temp (in nonoxidizing atmosphere) 1,900 1,900 °C
                Thermal Shock Resistance ∆t water quench 400 400 °C
                MECHANICAL      
                Bending Strength 25°C 273 300 MPa 
                Compressive Strength 25°C 120 100 kg/mm2
                Young's Modulus 25°C 1.9 x 104 1.8 x 104 kg/mm2
                Poisson's Ratio 25°C 0.31 0.31  
                Vickers Hardness (Hv) 25°C, 300g 390 380 kg/mm2
                CHEMICAL DURABILITY      
                Resistance to Acid 10%HCI 24Hrs, 25°C 0.2 0.2 mg/cm2 wt loss
                Resistance to Base 10%NaOH 24Hrs, 25°C 60 60 mg/cm2 wt loss

                Note:  Shapal™ is a registered trademark of Tokuyama Corporation, Tokyo, Japan

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